This work demonstrates that the chaotic waveforms operated at microwave frequencies yield enhanced medical imaging properties. As a first step, we considered chaos-based frequency modulated (CBFM) waveforms and conducted theoretical studies to show that they have sharp correlation characteristics and thumbtack ambiguity function. Next, we chose the chaotic waveform generated from the Lang-Kobayashi system and compared its results with CBFM waveforms. Later, we considered the case where the signal experiences attenuation when propagating through a medium such as human tissue. Finally, the robustness of both these waveforms is evaluated due to attenuation effects. The results obtained from ideal and attenuated cases show that the CBFM and chaotic waveforms can replace the existing linear frequency modulated (LFM) radar technology used for medical radar imaging.