This project focuses on terrorism and what conditions experienced in childhood may forecast participation in terrorist activities in adulthood. More specifically, I examine children in Israel and Palestine and analyze how the circumstances they have grown up in affect their mental and physical health, and how these factors may influence their choices in adulthood. Furthermore, I investigate the lives of Palestinian and Israeli terrorists and see what similarities and differences there are between potential explanations for their gravitation towards violent retaliation. I start by giving a brief overview of the Israel-Palestine conflict, and move on to give descriptions of both Israeli terrorism (vigilante-settler terrorism) and Palestinian terrorism (suicide terrorism). Then I analyze the ways violent conflict in the region affects both Israeli and Palestinian children, finishing with a description of the living conditions of both groups of adolescents. Literature accumulated to create this paper was taken from a variety of different disciplines including biology, psychology, sociology, political science, religious studies and studies of domestic relations. I was particularly interested in whether there were purely biological, purely social or a mix of explanations for this occurrence, as well as the differences and similarities between Israeli and Palestinian terrorists and how their upbringings differ from one another. Overall, I concluded that there were a number of different factors that worked together to push some adolescents towards terrorism, and that there were more similarities between Israelis and Palestinians in this respect than there were differences. In particular, living conditions of hopelessness or where there was little authority, cultures that support violence against opposing groups and religious ideologies that put emphasis on extreme heroism are key factors that lead to involvement with terrorist causes.