In the 21st Century, Russian foreign policy has experienced a revival in the world order by challenging the dominance of Western nations. Many scholars have debated the motives behind Russian foreign policy, pitting the idea of increasing its own power against the idea of preserving its own identity. This can be viewed in the context of the international relations theories of realism and constructivism. By studying Russia’s policy in both the West and the East, it becomes evident that Russia focuses on both power and identity respectively. In comparing Russia’s actions in Ukraine to actions in other regions, it becomes clear that Russia is focused on power when dealing with the West. Russia’s involvement in Ukraine has allowed Russia to challenge NATO expansion as well as improved Russia’s ability to project its influence throughout the world. In contrast, Russia’s policy with China is influenced by identity which can be understood in the relative weakness of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Russia’s longing for Western respect, as well as its negative perception of Eastern civilizations, influences Russian policy with China. By seeking to balance the power of Western nations, but refusing to seriously align with China, Russia has limited its own power. The duality of its foreign policy has undermined its ability to achieve world power status. The significance of identity in Russian foreign policy makes constructivism the leading theory in which to analyze Russia’s policy.