Climate change is one of the most crucial issues in our society as atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise. Geoengineering techniques will serve a lead role in removing carbon from the atmosphere. This review of carbon capture and sequestration and recycling methods will outline where we currently stand with specific capture and burial methods with the goal of raising awareness for what can be done to help combat climate change. Direct air capture (DAC), pre-combustion carbon capture, and post-combustion carbon capture are the three main geoengineering methods that are used to capture carbon. DAC is the most promising method as it captures carbon from ambient air. Other methods reviewed include planting trees to capture carbon in urban settings, fertilizing the oceans, burning biochar, and bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Analysis of the cost and energy needed to capture carbon from the methods above is also investigated. Once the carbon is captured, it is important to convert it or safely sequester it and store it in geologic settings. Burying carbon deep in the ocean and in geologic formations on land will be reviewed as well. Moving forward, the goal is that between implementing a wide array of geoengineering methods powered with renewable energy sources, the United States and the rest of the world will be able to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and mitigate the effects of climate change.
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