Private businesses often claim that they employ fair labor practices and care about employees’ well-being. However, firms may face contradictory situations since fair labor practiced can result in cost increases and lower profit. In this thesis, I examine historic and contemporary worker conditions and fair labor practices. Workers’ conditions during the Industrial Revolution and the basis of relevant Marxist theory are examined. Contemporary labor practices are also examined and a secondary analysis of worker attitudes about work conditions is investigated for two modern companies. Historic comparisons and contemporary trends are discussed.